March 21st, 2019

Perils of a jobless future


By Lethbridge Herald Opinon on March 12, 2019.

Automation is taking away an increasing number of jobs

Trevor Harrison

UNIVERSITY OF LETHBRIDGE

Self-checkouts. You’ve seen them. They’re everywhere now. Grocery stores and other retail outlets; airports and banks.

They sell convenience; no need to wait in line. And some customers express satisfaction with the greater sense of control they have over the process. But, beneath such expressions and the calm surface of technological acceptance, a storm is brewing.

For some customers the moment comes when they realize they’ve become unpaid workers for the corporation, whether bagging their own groceries or making out their own deposit slips. For others, the existential moment of truth comes when they realize the checkout machine replaced a human being – followed by the thought that perhaps similar machines are stalking them.

There has recently been a blowback among customers against self-checkouts. First, as mentioned, some customers have cottoned on to the fact that, in grocery stores at least, they are now doing the scanning and bagging that perhaps two others used to do, at an additional cost of their own time. In effect, the labour has been downloaded onto customers – a practice termed “shadow work.” Second, a lot of customers – count me among them – find the machine’s insistent demands said in a toneless voice annoying (“Please take your bag.”). Third, at least some customers express less satisfaction in their shopping experience, perhaps because of the loss of human contact,

But perhaps the biggest blowback has occurred within companies themselves. For, while self-checkouts have been marketed as increasing customer convenience, their use has been driven primarily by the quest for cost savings. For shareholders, the reality hasn’t lived up to the hype.

The cost savings anticipated by company CEOs and accountants have often not materialized. The machines are very expensive to buy and maintain. And when they malfunction or are confused (“Please wait for an attendant”), a human being has to step in. Moreover, self-checkout machines are prone to have higher rates of customer theft than occur at regular checkouts.

Given these assorted problems, some stores have found a novel way to replace their self-checkouts: they’ve gone back to hiring staff. The CBC and various other news outlets have reported that some Canadian Tire stores in Toronto have made the change, and that several large companies in the U.S., including Seattle’s PCC Community Markets and Albertsons LLC, will eliminate self-checkout lanes in some of their stores and go back to standard or express lanes. But perhaps the biggest story is Walmart which, following a brief and unsuccessful experience, cancelled its use of self-checkout machines.

These examples aside, it seems likely that machines will continue to eliminate certain jobs in coming years. Robots and computers are ideal for doing repetitive and often boring jobs. The impact is being seen already in other jobs beyond the supermarket, for example, in the advent of self-driving cars. This does not count the number of dangerous jobs eliminated in recent decades in areas such as mining and forestry.

There is much that could be celebrated in the use of these new technologies. But their use and the pace of their introduction cannot be left to companies and shareholders; neither can the financial benefits accrue only to the owners of the means of production. Unless the benefits of technological change are equally distributed, the result will be anger, alienation and social discord. The extreme politics alive today in much of the world is in part a response to the manner in which the new technologies have thus far been implemented.

The misuse of new technologies has finally another fatal flaw. The assembly line introduced in the early 20th century increased production at the eventual cost of thousands of jobs. In 1929, the resultant imbalance of supply and demand contributed to the Great Depression. Without jobs – good-paying jobs – aggregate demand tumbled.

The same risk faces us today. Unless dealt with, there may soon be plenty of supply on store shelves, but the computer voices staffing the machines will be talking only to themselves.

Trevor W. Harrison is a political sociologist at the University of Lethbridge and director of Parkland Institute.

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4 Responses to “Perils of a jobless future”

  1. biff says:

    add to that we are pumping our own gas – where is the savings?! – playing bank teller…and paying fees for the privilege – even taking our own orders at some fast foods chains. whatever savings there might be, they are not being passed on to the customer.
    recently, while waiting for someone at walmart, i watched as a fairly long looking line up led my companion to the self check out, where she got to a register immediately. given fails and slow processing of scanning, the line up at the human served register not only completed before my companion was done, but several more people also were served by the human. how big was my companion’s order?: about a 150$ of groceries was all.

  2. phlushie says:

    We have a consumer economy. As long as the consumer has money the economy flourishes. However, remove an income from the consumer and other things happen. We can see some of this happening right now, here in Alberta. Look at our increasing crime rate based on high value items (not subsistence items) being used to replace income from jobs that have disappeared. I just look at the monthly cost of maintaining my home (which I own) and my life:
    Taxes………..$255
    HVAC………..$200
    Water………..$035
    Phone……….$049
    Garbage……$028
    Insurance….$093
    Total………….$660 After Tax ($795 before tax)
    Add to this food and clothing for 2 Adults of about $800 AfterTax ($963 before tax). That is a total of $1758 just to maintain my home and life. No car, no medication, no entertainment and no emergency repairs etc.
    Funny thing, those costs seem to be inline with what a seniors pension is. Is the government going to put all the “job loss” people on pension plans for subsistence living?

  3. Seth Anthony says:

    For a few decades now, inflation, and the cost of goods / services has been increasing at a far greater rate than wages. This of course increases poverty and misery.

    The inevitable end to this system is total destruction of the middle, and middle to low class. The population will be 1% elite, and 99% poverty stricken slaves.

  4. sikorsky says:

    Does anyone remember when we saved a couple cents per liter when we pumped our own gas?


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